Original Post from FireEye
FireEye is tracking a set of financially-motivated activity referred
to as TEMP.MixMaster that involves the interactive deployment of Ryuk
ransomware following TrickBot malware infections. These operations
have been active since at least December 2017, with a notable uptick
in the latter half of 2018, and have proven to be highly successful at
soliciting large ransom payments from victim organizations. In
multiple incidents, rather than relying solely on built-in TrickBot
capabilities, TEMP.MixMaster used EMPIRE and RDP connections to enable
lateral movement within victim environments. Interactive deployment of
ransomware, such as this, allows an attacker to perform valuable
reconnaissance within the victim network and identify critical systems
to maximize their disruption
to business operations, ultimately increasing the likelihood an
organization will pay the demanded ransom. These operations have
reportedly netted about $3.7
million in current BTC value.
Notably, while there have been numerous reports attributing Ryuk
malware to North Korea, FireEye has not found evidence of this during
our investigations. This narrative appears to be driven by code
similarities between Ryuk and Hermes, a ransomware that has been
used by APT38. However, these code similarities are insufficient to
conclude North Korea is behind Ryuk attacks, as the Hermes ransomware
kit was also advertised for sale in the underground community at one time.
It is important to note that TEMP.MixMaster is solely a reference to
incidents where we have seen Ryuk deployed following TrickBot
infections and that not all TrickBot infections will lead to the
deployment of Ryuk ransomware. The TrickBot administrator group, which
is suspected to be based in Eastern Europe, most likely provide the
malware to a limited number of cyber criminal actors to use in
operations. This is partially evident through its use of “gtags” that
appear to be unique campaign identifiers used to identify specific
TrickBot users. In recent incidents investigated by our Mandiant
incident response teams, there has been consistency across the gtags
appearing in the configuration files of TrickBot samples collected
from different victim networks where Ryuk was also deployed. The
uniformity of the gtags observed across these incidents appears to be
due to instances of TrickBot being propagated via the malware’s
worming module configured to use these gtag values.
Currently, we do not have definitive evidence that the entirety of
TEMP.MixMaster activity, from TrickBot distribution and operation to
Ryuk deployment, is being conducted by a common operator or group. It
is also plausible that Ryuk malware is available to multiple eCrime
actors who are also using TrickBot malware, or that at least one
TrickBot user is selling access to environments they have compromised
to a third party. The intrusion operations deploying Ryuk have also
been called GRIM SPIDER.
TrickBot Infection Leading to Ryuk Deployment
The following are a summary of tactics observed across incident
response investigations where the use of TrickBot preceded
distribution of Ryuk ransomware. Of note, due to the interactive
nature of Ryuk deployment, the TTPs leading to its execution can vary
across incidents. Furthermore, in at least one case artifacts related
to the execution of TrickBot were collected but there was insufficient
evidence to clearly tie observed Ryuk activity to the use of TrickBot.
The initial infection vector was not confirmed in all incidents; in
one case, Mandiant identified that the attackers leveraged a
payroll-themed phishing email with an XLS attachment to deliver
TrickBot malware (Figure 1). The campaign
is documented on this security site. Data from FireEye
technologies shows that this campaign was widely distributed primarily
to organizations in the United States, and across diverse industries
including government, financial services, manufacturing, service
providers, and high-tech.
Once a victim opened the attachment and enabled macros, it
downloaded and executed an instance of the TrickBot malware from a
remote server. Data obtained from FireEye technologies suggests that
although different documents may have been distributed by this
particular malicious spam run, the URLs from which the documents
attempted to retrieve a secondary payload did not vary across
attachments or recipients, despite the campaign’s broad distribution
both geographically and across industry verticals. Note that the
domain “deloitte-inv[.]com” is not a legitimate Deloitte
domain, and does not indicate any compromise of Deloitte.
From: Adam Bush
Figure 1: Email from a phishing campaign that
downloaded TrickBot, which eventually led to Ryuk
Persistence and Lateral Movement
When executed, TrickBot created scheduled tasks on compromised
systems to execute itself and ensure persistence following system
reboot. These instances of TrickBot were configured to use their
network propagation modules (sharedll and tabdll) that rely on SMB and
harvested credentials to propagate to additional systems in the
network. The number of systems to which TrickBot was propagated varied
across intrusions from fewer than ten to many hundreds.
Dwell Time and Post-Exploitation Activity
After a foothold was established by the actors controlling TrickBot,
a period of inactivity sometimes followed. Dwell time between TrickBot
installation and Ryuk distribution varied across intrusions, but in at
least one case may have been as long as a full year. Despite this long
dwell time, the earliest reports of Ryuk malware only date back to
August 2018. It is likely that actors controlling Trickbot instances
used to maintain access to victim environments prior to the known
availability of Ryuk were monetizing this access in different ways.
Further, due to the suspected human-driven component to these
intrusion operations, we would expect to commonly see a delay between
initial infection and Ryuk deployment or other post-exploitation
activity, particularly in cases where the same initial infection
vector was used to compromise multiple organizations simultaneously.
Once activity restarted, the actors moved to interactive intrusion
by deploying Empire and/or leveraging RDP connections tunneled through
reverse-shells instead of relying on the built-in capabilities of
TrickBot to interact with the victim network. In multiple intrusions
TrickBot’s reverse-shell module (NewBCtestDll) was used to execute
obfuscated PowerShell scripts which ultimately downloaded and launched
an Empire backdoor.
Variations in Ryuk Deployment Across Engagements
Post exploitation activity associated with each Ryuk incident has
varied in historical and ongoing Mandiant incident response
engagements. Given that collected evidence suggests Ryuk deployment is
managed via human-interactive post-exploitation, variation and
evolution in methodology, tools, and approach over time and across
intrusions is expected.
The following high-level steps appear common across most incidents
into which we have insight:
- Actors produce a list of
targets systems and save it to one or multiple .txt files.
- Actors move a copy of PsExec, an instance of Ryuk, and one or
more batch scripts to one or more domain controllers or other high
privilege systems within the victim environment.
- Actors run
batch scripts to copy a Ryuk sample to each host contained in .txt
files and ultimately execute them.
Some of the notable ways Ryuk deployment has varied include:
- In one case, there was
evidence suggesting that actors enumerated hosts on the victim
network to identify targets for encryption with Ryuk, but in
multiple other cases these lists were manually copied to the server
that was then used for Ryuk distribution without clear evidence
available for how they were produced.
- There have been
multiple cases where TrickBot was deployed broadly across victim
environments rather than being used to maintain a foothold on a
small number of hosts.
- We have not identified evidence that
Empire was used by the attackers in all cases and sometimes Empire
was used to access the victim environment only after Ryuk encryption
- In one case, the attackers used a variant of
Ryuk with slightly different capabilities accompanied by a
standalone .bat script containing most of the same taskkill, net,
and sc commands normally used by Ryuk to terminate processes and
stop services related to anti-virus, backup, and database
Example of Ryuk Deployment – Q3 2018
- Using previously stolen
credentials the attacker logged into a domain controller and copied
tools into the %TEMP% directory. Copied tools included AdFind.exe
(Active Directory enumeration utility), a batch script (Figure 2),
and a copy of the 7-Zip archive utility.
utilities were copied to C:WindowsSysWOW64.
- The attacker
performed host and network reconnaissance using built-in Windows
- AdFind.exe was executed using the previously noted
batch script, which was crafted to pass the utility a series of
commands that were used to collect information about Active
Directory users, systems, OUs, subnets, groups, and trust objects.
The output from each command was saved to an individual text file
alongside the AdFind.exe utility (Figure 2).
- This process
was performed twice on the same domain controller, 10 hours apart.
Between executions of Adfind the attacker tested access to multiple
domain controllers in the victim environment, including the one
later used to deploy Ryuk.
- The attacker logged into a
domain controller and copied instances of PSExec.exe, a batch script
used to kill processes and stop services, and an instance of Ryuk
onto the system.
- Using PsExec the attacker copied the
process/service killing batch script to the %TEMP% folder on
hundreds of computers across the victim environment, from which it
was then executed.
- The attacker then used PsExec to copy
the Ryuk binary to the %SystemRoot% directories of these same
computers. A new service configured to launch the Ryuk binary was
then created and started.
- Ryuk execution proceeded as
normal, encrypting files on impacted systems.
adfind.exe -f (objectcategory=person) >
adfind.exe -f (objectcategory=organizationalUnit) >
adfind.exe -subnets -f
adfind.exe -f “(objectcategory=group)” >
adfind.exe -gcb -sc trustdmp >
Figure 2: Batch script that uses adfind.exe tool
to enumerate Active Directory objects
Example of Ryuk Deployment – Q4 2018
- An instance of the EMPIRE
backdoor launched on a system that had been infected by TrickBot.
The attacker used EMPIRE’s built-in capabilities to perform network
- Attackers connected to a domain controller in
the victim network via RDP and copied several files into the host’s
C$ share. The copied files included an instance of PsExec, two batch
scripts, an instance of the Ryuk malware, and multiple .txt files
containing lists of hosts within the victim environment. Many of the
targeted hosts were critical systems across the victim environment
including domain controllers and other hosts providing key
management and authentication services.
- The attackers then
executed the first of these two batch scripts. The executed script
used PsExec and hard-coded credentials previously stolen by the
actors to copy the Ryuk binary to each host passed as input from the
noted .txt files (Figure 3).
- Attackers then executed the
second batch script which iterated through the same host lists and
used PsExec to execute the Ryuk binaries copied by the first batch
script (Figure 4).
Figure 3: Line from the batch file used to copy
Ryuk executable to each system
start PsExec.exe -d
Figure 4: Line from the batch file used to
execute Ryuk on each system
Consistency in TrickBot Group Tags
Each individual TrickBot sample beacons to its Command & Control
(C2) infrastructure with a statically defined “gtag” that is believed
to act as an identifier for distinct TrickBot customers. There has
been significant uniformity in the gtags associated with TrickBot
samples collected from the networks of victim organizations.
- The instance of TrickBot
identified as the likely initial infection vector for one intrusion
was configured to use the gtag ‘ser0918us’.
- At the time of
distribution, the C2 servers responding to TrickBot samples
using the gtag ‘ser0918us’ were sending commands to request that
the malware scan victim networks, and then propagate across
hosts via the TrickBot worming module.
- It is possible
that in some or all cases instances of TrickBot propagated via
the malware’s worming module are configured to use different
gtag values, specific to the same TrickBot client, designed to
simplify management of implants post-exploitation.
- At the time of
- A significant proportion of TrickBot samples obtained from
the victim environments, including in the case where the infection
vector was identified as a sample using gtag ‘ser0918us’, had gtags
in the below formats. This may suggest that these gtags are used to
manage post-exploitation instanced of TrickBot for campaigns
distributed via gtag ‘ser0918us’ and other related gtags.
- libxxx (ex: lib373, lib369, etc)
- totxxx (ex:
tot373, tot369, etc)
- jimxxx (ex jim373, jim369,
- The numbers appended to the end of each
gtag appear to increment over time, and in some cases multiple
samples sharing the same compile time but using different gtags were
observed in the same victim environment, though in each of these
cases the numbers appended to the end of the gtag matched (e.g. two
distinct samples sharing the compile time 2018-12-07 11:28:23 were
configured to use the gtags ‘jim371’ and ‘tot371’).
- The C2
infrastructure hard-coded into these samples overlaps significantly
across samples sharing similar gtag values. However, there is also
C2 infrastructure overlap between these samples and ones with
dissimilar gtag values. These patterns may suggest the use of proxy
infrastructure shared across multiple clients of the TrickBot
Throughout 2018, FireEye observed an increasing number of cases
where ransomware was deployed after the attackers gained access to the
victim organization through other methods, allowing them to traverse
the network to identify critical systems and inflict maximum damage.
operations, which date back to late 2015, were arguably the first
to popularize this methodology and TEMP.MixMaster’s is an example of
its growing popularity with threat actors. FireEye Intelligence
expects that these operations will continue to gain traction
throughout 2019 due the success these intrusion operators have had in
extorting large sums from victim organizations.
It is also worth highlighting TEMP.MixMaster’s reliance on TrickBot
malware, which is more widely distributed, to gain access to victim
organizations. Following indiscriminate campaigns, threat actors can
profile victims to identify systems and users of interest and
subsequently determine potential monetization strategies to maximize
their revenue. Various malware families have incorporated capabilities
that can aid in the discovery of high-value targets underscoring the
necessity for organizations to prioritize proper remediation of all
threats, not only those that initially appear to be targeted.
The authors would like to thank Brice Daniels, Edward Li, Eric
Montellese, Sandor Nemes, Eric Scales, Brandan Schondorfer, Martin
Tremblay, and Isif Ibrahima for their contributions to this blog
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Author: Kimberly Goody